Chapter 3 Physical Processes - Chapter 3: Heat and Energy in the Atmosphere Atmospheric Composition  - Study Quickly (2023)

Chapter 3: Heat and energy in the atmosphere

Atmospheric composition Nitrogen and oxygen make up most of the atmosphere (99%).  Other gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide and ozone, despite their much lower concentration, play a much more important role in controlling the climate.

(Video) Introduction to Climatology & Atmosphere | Structure of Atmospheric Layers | Geography | Ma'am Richa

Shortwave radiation in the atmosphere Sunlight enters the atmosphere by first passing through the thermosphere and mesosphere with little change. In the stratosphere, the density of atmospheric gases increases. More oxygen is available which reacts with the shorter or UV wavelengths and effectively removes them, heating the atmosphere and producing ozone.  It then enters the troposphere. The atmosphere quickly becomes denser and so there is more interaction between sunlight and atmospheric gases. The size of air gas molecules is such that they interact with solar radiation, scattering some of it in many directions -> depends on wavelength -> shorter waves are more scattered -> scattered waves like blue sky.  Dust and haze in the atmosphere are further dispersed -> not all is lost -> some returned to space, but most of it is as diffuse radiation directed towards the surface -> cloudy conditions with no direct sunlight.  Shortwave energy loss: absorption and reflection. Reflection: Water droplets or ice crystals in clouds are very effective at reflecting radiation. Lower and denser clouds tend to reflect more.  50% of the original incoming energy reaches the surface, but albedo!  Water Albedo at an angle greater than 40°: 2-4% but at an angle less than 40°: 6-80%  Sunlight that reaches the earth's surface and is not reflected by the earth is absorbed and converted into heat.  Briefly. Incoming radiation can be absorbed (in the atmosphere and at the surface), scattered (in the atmosphere), or reflected (from clouds and at the surface). When reflected, the radiation returns to space in the form of short waves and becomes part of the Earth's energy output. Likewise, some of the scattered radiation bounces back into space to give a shortwave albedo for our planet of 28 percent.

Langgolvige straling The Earth's surface absorbs most of the shortwave radiation and is therefore normally at a higher temperature than the atmosphere.  The atmosphere absorbs much more longwave radiation than shortwave radiation. Carbon dioxide and water vapor are very effective absorbers of much of most of the spectrum except 8m and 12m.  Water vapor is concentrated in the lower layers of the atmosphere -> this is where most of the absorption takes place.  Clouds are also very efficient at absorbing long wave radiation -> their temperature will be higher than usual. Especially at night: in clear skies and dry air, long-wave radiation is emitted from the surface, but little is received by

(Video) FORM 4: ENERGY CHANGES IN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES ( Endothermic and Exothermic reaction)

atmosphere, causing the temperature to drop sharply. If the sky is cloudy, clouds will absorb much of the radiation from the surface and, because they are also emitters, more of the radiation will return to the ground as back radiation than with a clear sky. It is absorbed by the ground, which offsets the emission of long-wave radiation and thus reduces the rate of ground cooling. exchange between the surface and the atmosphere and is the basis of the natural greenhouse effect. Radiation from the atmosphere is emitted both into space and downward. Since there is less water vapor at higher levels, absorption from the atmosphere is less and proportionately more is lost to space.

 The role of latent heat in balancing the Earth's heat budget is crucial. Latent heat transfer by convection returns about one-fifth of the energy of incoming solar radiation to the atmosphere  The heat used for evaporation in land areas depends on the availability of moisture and energy.

(Video) Composition of Atmosphere | Climatology | Geography | by Ma'am Richa

Energy transfer and global traffic There are four main forms of energy in atmospheric circulation: latent heat, sensible heat, potential energy and kinetic energy.  Et=Lq+CpT+gz+V 2 /2. Where Et=total energy of a unit mass of air. Lq = latent heat content (latent heat of vaporization x specific humidity), CpT = sensible heat (specific heat of air x temperature), gz = potential energy (gravity x height) and V 2/2 = kinetic energy (velocity squared divided by two).  Latent heat = the amount of heat released or absorbed without any change in temperature when a substance changes from one state to another.  Sensible heat = can be considered as the temperature of the atmosphere. It is extracted from the earth's surface after absorption of short-wave radiation or by release of latent heat through condensation.  Potential energy = as air moves through the atmosphere, it tends to change height and change its energy content. As the air sinks slowly, its potential energy decreases. Normally it is converted to sensible heat and the air warms as it decreases. As the air rises, the temperature drops, but the potential energy increases.  Kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the wind speed. Strong wind has more kinetic energy than gentle wind. Hurricanes and other strong surface winds are relatively rare -> kinetic energy is limited.  Whatever energy enters the earth/atmosphere system must eventually come out again.

Effects on temperature Daily pattern Temperatures respond to energy input. When part of the radiant energy is used for evaporation, less energy is available for heating.  At night the sea cools slowly so that the temperature does not drop as much as on land - this is why coastal areas are less likely to suffer from night frost.  Dry regions -> incoming radiation is high and little energy is used for evaporation, so temperatures are high, while radiative cooling is strong at night, sometimes causing low air temperatures.

(Video) Structure of the Atmosphere - Air | Class 7 Geography

Seasonal pattern

 Changing relationship with the sun: the variation within its orbit that causes the sun's apparent seasonality from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn and back. This change in the position of the sun leads to changes in the angle of incident rays and the length of daylight. Both factors affect the amount of solar radiation the Earth receives and therefore the degree of atmospheric warming.  The seasonal radiation pattern and associated temperature conditions vary with latitude.

(Video) Class 10th Science chapter3 revision in 15 minutes || Metals & Non metals class 10th by Abhishek sir

 In the tropics, seasonal differences in temperature are small and diurnal (day-to-day) variation is more significant. The sun never moves from a position above noon.

conclusion The different response of the atmosphere to long and short wave radiation forms the basis of the greenhouse effect. The spatially and temporally varying inputs and outputs of radiative energy from the surface form the energy gradient between surface and atmosphere and between tropical and polar regions. This shows that the atmosphere will always have a radiative deficit (deficiency) that requires energy transfer in the form of latent and sensible heat, and there is another radiative energy gradient between a tropical surplus and a polar deficit. This second gradient is the driving force behind the atmospheric circulation where heat must be transported poleward to compensate for the radiative deficit. It is this exchange of energy that forms the basis of our climate system.

(Video) Long Question/Answer Trick | How To Learn Long Answers Quickly |Long Answer Kaise Yaad Kare #EXAMS


What are the layers of the atmosphere worksheet answers? ›

These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere,- the mesosphere, and the thermosphere.

What are the 4 processes of the heating of the Earth's atmosphere? ›

Earth's atmosphere gets heated due to the following three critical processes: conduction, advection, and convection. The sun radiates energy in the form of heat and light in all directions which is called radiation.

What are the 3 most important gases found in air and their percentage composition in air? ›

Gases. The most abundant naturally occurring gas is nitrogen (N2), which makes up about 78% of air. Oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas at about 21%. The inert gas argon (Ar) is the third most abundant gas at 0.93%.

What are the 3 natural ways to heat the Earth's atmosphere and surface? ›

There are three ways heat is transferred into and through the atmosphere:
  • radiation.
  • conduction.
  • convection.

What are the five layers of the atmosphere answers? ›

From lowest to highest, the major layers are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.

What are the layers of the atmosphere 7th grade? ›

These layers are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere.

What are the 5 processes of atmospheric heating? ›

Ans. The process of heating and cooling of the atmosphere takes place in four stages and these stages are radiation, conduction, convection, and advection. Radiation is the cycle by which sun-based energy arrives at the earth, and the earth loses energy to space.

What are the 3 main sources of heat in the deep Earth? ›

Radioactive potassium, uranium and thorium are thought to be the three main sources of heat in the Earth's interior, aside from that generated by the formation of the planet.

What is 9 the natural process by which the earth's atmosphere warms up? ›

The greenhouse effect is a process that occurs when gases in Earth's atmosphere trap the Sun's heat. This process makes Earth much warmer than it would be without an atmosphere.

What is our atmosphere made of? ›

Carbon dioxideCO20.035%
12 more rows
Apr 14, 2023

What does the atmosphere do? ›

Not only does it contain the oxygen we need to live, but it also protects us from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation. It creates the pressure without which liquid water couldn't exist on our planet's surface. And it warms our planet and keeps temperatures habitable for our living Earth.

What are the three types of air? ›

Equatorial air masses develop near the Equator, and are warm. Air masses are also identified based on whether they form over land or over water. Maritime air masses form over water and are humid. Continental air masses form over land and are dry.

What are the 3 ways heat moves through the atmosphere? ›

Energy is transferred between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere in a variety of ways, including radiation, conduction, and convection. Conduction is one of the three main ways that heat energy moves from place to place. The other two ways heat moves around are radiation and convection.

What are the three 3 methods of heat? ›

Without this difference, no heat transfer can take place. Heat can be transferred in three ways: by conduction, by convection, and by radiation.

What are the physical processes of the atmosphere? ›

The most important classes of physical processes are (1) radiative, (2) cloud and precipitation, and (3) turbulent mixing and exchange.

Which layer is the hottest? ›

The thermosphere is often considered the "hot layer" because it contains the warmest temperatures in the atmosphere. Temperature increases with height until the estimated top of the thermosphere at 500 km.

What layer of the atmosphere is the hottest? ›

The coldest layer of atmosphere is the mesosphere while the hottest layer of the atmosphere is thermosphere.

How high is the atmosphere? ›

Earth's atmosphere stretches from the surface of the planet up to as far as 10,000 kilometers (6,214 miles) above. After that, the atmosphere blends into space.

What are the five main layers of the atmosphere quizlet? ›

  • Troposphere. The first layer of the atmosphere. We live here, breathe here, and weather occurs here. ...
  • Stratosphere. The second layer of the atmosphere. ...
  • Mesosphere. The middle layer of the atmosphere. ...
  • Thermosphere. It is the fourth layer of the atmosphere. ...
  • Exosphere. The last layer of the atmosphere.

What is the layers of the earth? ›

​​The earth is made up of three different layers: the crust, the mantle and the core.

How many stages of heat are there? ›

Stage 1 HeatingIndoor heat in single-stage systems or first-stage heating in multiple-stage systems.
Stage 2 Aux HeatingSecond-stage auxiliary heating for heat pumps and multi-stage furnaces
Stage 3 Aux HeatingThird-stage auxiliary heating for heat pumps and multi-stage furnaces
2 more rows
Nov 30, 2021

What is the atmosphere essay? ›

Atmosphere is a multi-layered envelope of different gases (just like a protective blanket) surrounding the earth which holds up life on earth and saves it from harmful environment of outer space. ADVERTISEMENTS: It extends to a height of about 1600 kms from the earth's surface.

What is heating of the atmosphere Grade 10? ›

Heating of the atmosphere.

Heat travels in the form of short wave radiation (ultra violet) which passes through the atmosphere without noticeably warming it. When it reaches the earth's surface some of the heat is absorbed by the surface. The heat received by the earth from the sun is known as “insolation”.

What is earth's main source of heat? ›

The flow of heat from Earth's interior to the surface is estimated at 47±2 terawatts (TW) and comes from two main sources in roughly equal amounts: the radiogenic heat produced by the radioactive decay of isotopes in the mantle and crust, and the primordial heat left over from the formation of Earth.

What is the main source of heat on earth called? ›

A major source of Earth's heat is radioactivity, the energy released when the unstable atoms decay. The radioactive isotopes uranium-235 (235U), uranium-238 (238U), potassium-40 (40K), and thorium-232 (232Th) in Earth's mantle are the primary source.

What are the 2 main sources of heat within the Earth? ›

The known sources of heat from the Earth's interior are radioactive decays, and residual heat from when our planet was first formed.

Which are three components of the earth's first atmosphere? ›

Earth's original atmosphere was rich in methane, ammonia, water vapour, and the noble gas neon, but it lacked free oxygen.

What types of natural processes affect the earth's atmosphere? ›

Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which has changed the earth's climate. Natural processes, such as changes in the sun's energy and volcanic eruptions, also affect the earth's climate.

What is the process of warming the earth surface and the lower atmosphere called? ›

The greenhouse effect: some of the infrared radiation from the Sun passes through the atmosphere, but most is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gas molecules and clouds. The effect of this is to warm the Earth's surface and the lower atmosphere.

What is 21 of the earth's atmosphere? ›

The air in Earth's atmosphere is made up of approximately 78 percent nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen. Air also has small amounts of other gases, too, such as carbon dioxide, neon, and hydrogen.

How many types of gases are there? ›

Those elements that exist in a gaseous state under 1 atmospheric pressure are called gases. Those 11 gases are Helium, Argon, Neon, Krypton, Radon, Xenon, Nitrogen, Hydrogen, Chlorine, Fluorine, and Oxygen.

What is Earth made of? ›

Just slightly larger than nearby Venus, Earth is the biggest of the four planets closest to the Sun, all of which are made of rock and metal.

What are 5 things the atmosphere does for us? ›

The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth. It helps make life possible by providing us with air to breathe, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the Sun, trapping heat to warm the planet, and preventing extreme temperature differences between day and night.

What is an atmosphere answer? ›

An atmosphere is made of the layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body. Earth's atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and one percent other gases.

What causes wind? ›

During the day, air above land heats up faster than air above water. Warm air above land expands and rises, and heavier, cooler air rushes in to take its place, creating wind. At night, the winds are reversed because air cools more rapidly over land than it does over water.

What are the 4 parts of air? ›

Components of Air - Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Water Vapour.

Is air a matter or not? ›

But, like solids and liquids, air is matter. It has weight (more than we might imagine), it takes up space, and it is composed of particles too small and too spread apart to see.

How does heat move? ›

And unless people interfere, thermal energy — or heat — naturally flows in one direction only: from hot toward cold. Heat moves naturally by any of three means. The processes are known as conduction, convection and radiation.

How does heat flow? ›

Heat is transferred to and from objects -- such as you and your home -- through three processes: conduction, radiation, and convection.

Why is heat important? ›

Heat is used to make things warm, to boil water and fry eggs and to melt metal to build cars. Heat is used to generate electricity at a thermal power plant for our daily lives. Temperature is the measure of how hot or cold matter is. Temperature is measured in units called degrees Celsius ( ).

What are the examples of heat? ›

Here are some examples of heat energy:
  • The Sun is the biggest source of heat energy in our solar system. ...
  • A stovetop acts as a source of heat energy when it burns the gas. ...
  • Automobile fuels are also a source of heat energy. ...
  • A hot cup of tea or coffee contains heat energy.

What materials transfer heat easily? ›

Metals That Conduct Heat the Best
  • Silver. Silver is one of the best metals for conducting heat because it works as a powerful reflector. ...
  • Copper. Copper is yet another good conductor of heat because it absorbs heat quickly and holds it for a long period of time. ...
  • Aluminum. ...
  • Brass.
Oct 31, 2019

What are the 3 processes that place water in the atmosphere? ›

The water cycle shows the continuous movement of water within the Earth and atmosphere. It is a complex system that includes many different processes. Liquid water evaporates into water vapor, condenses to form clouds, and precipitates back to earth in the form of rain and snow.

What are the 5 physical properties of the atmosphere? ›

as temperature, pressure, moisture content, wind speed, and direction, and other observable properties, such as visibility, cloud cover, and precipitation rate.

What are 3 processes that produce atmospheric carbon? ›

Burning fossil fuels, changing land use, and using limestone to make concrete all transfer significant quantities of carbon into the atmosphere. As a result, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rapidly rising; it is already greater than at any time in the last 3.6 million years.

What are the layers of the atmosphere worksheet? ›

The layers of the atmosphere in order from the lowest to the highest are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.

What are layers of the atmosphere? ›

Earth's Atmospheric Layers
  • Troposphere. The troposphere starts at the Earth's surface and extends 8 to 14.5 kilometers high (5 to 9 miles). ...
  • Stratosphere. The stratosphere starts just above the troposphere and extends to 50 kilometers (31 miles) high. ...
  • Mesosphere. ...
  • Thermosphere. ...
  • Ionosphere. ...
  • Exosphere. ...
  • Credit: NASA/Goddard.
Jan 21, 2013

What are the layers of the atmosphere Lesson 1? ›

The atmosphere of the Earth is divided into four layers: troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Thermosphere, and they are separated based on temperature. Weather processes occur in the lower layers of the atmosphere while interesting events such as the beautiful aurora occur higher.

What are 5 things our atmosphere does for us? ›

The atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth. It helps make life possible by providing us with air to breathe, shielding us from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the Sun, trapping heat to warm the planet, and preventing extreme temperature differences between day and night.

What is the 6 layer of the atmosphere? ›

Earth's atmosphere has a series of layers, each with its own specific traits. Moving upward from ground level, these layers are called the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. The exosphere gradually fades away into the realm of interplanetary space.

What are the layers of the atmosphere 3rd grade? ›

Earth's atmosphere has six layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere, the ionosphere, and the exosphere.

What causes the layers of the atmosphere? ›

The atmosphere is divided into layers based on how the temperature in that layer changes with altitude, the layer's temperature gradient. The temperature gradient of each layer is different. In some layers, temperature increases with altitude and in others it decreases.

Why are the different layers of the atmosphere important? ›

These five different layers provide protection and also make life possible because of the constituent gases which state the significance and importance of the atmosphere. The five layers provide a wide range of distribution of gases and the densities of the gases at each layer of the atmosphere.

What keeps Earth's atmosphere in place? ›

The atmosphere is held around the Earth by gravity. Gravity pulls gas molecules in the atmosphere toward the Earth's surface, causing air pressure.

Why are there 5 layers of the atmosphere? ›

Thanks to these studies, we now know the five layers of the atmosphere are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere (see graphic). Together, these layers protect us from the sun's harmful radiation and keep temperatures on Earth habitable for all living beings.

What are the 3 main gases in the atmosphere? ›

Carbon dioxideCO20.035%
12 more rows
Apr 14, 2023

Which of the 5 layers of the atmosphere is where Earth transitions to space? ›

Exosphere. The last of the five layers of the atmosphere is the exosphere. This layer is farthest from the surface of the planet and is the layer that transitions into space.

What are the properties of atmosphere? ›

as temperature, pressure, moisture content, wind speed, and direction, and other observable properties, such as visibility, cloud cover, and precipitation rate.

What is present around the Earth? ›

Earth's atmosphere is composed of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and one percent other gases. These gases are found in atmospheric layers (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere) defined by unique features such as temperature and pressure.


1. Long Question/Answer Trick | How To Learn Long Answers Quickly |Long Answer Kaise Yaad Kare #EXAMS
(BCPM Science)
2. Geography grade 9 unit 2 part 3 | Physical Environment of World and Ethiopia | Weather and Climate
(Ethiopian Online Education )
3. Experiment on Density#Basic science
(Basic science)
4. Is Kurkure Made From Plastic? || Chemistry Fun Fact || Factastic Little Champs
(PW Little Champs)
5. Atmospheric Pressure | Force and Pressure | Don't Memorise
(Infinity Learn Class 9&10)
6. First Law of Thermodynamics, Basic Introduction - Internal Energy, Heat and Work - Chemistry
(The Organic Chemistry Tutor)


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Prof. Nancy Dach

Last Updated: 13/05/2023

Views: 6089

Rating: 4.7 / 5 (77 voted)

Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Prof. Nancy Dach

Birthday: 1993-08-23

Address: 569 Waelchi Ports, South Blainebury, LA 11589

Phone: +9958996486049

Job: Sales Manager

Hobby: Web surfing, Scuba diving, Mountaineering, Writing, Sailing, Dance, Blacksmithing

Introduction: My name is Prof. Nancy Dach, I am a lively, joyous, courageous, lovely, tender, charming, open person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.