Overseeing stem cell research: glossary (2023)

adipose tissue: A type of connective tissue that stores fat.

adult stem cell: An undifferentiated cell within a differentiated tissue that can self-renew and (with certain limitations) differentiate to produce all the specialized cell types of the tissue from which it originates. (NIH)

Zell allogeneic transplant: transplantation of cells from one individual to another of the same species.

amniotic fluid: Fluid that fills the innermost membrane, the amnion, which envelops the developing embryo or fetus.

Amnions:The innermost of the extraembryonic membranes that surround the embryo in the uterus and contain the amniotic fluid. (SMD)

aneuploide: Having an abnormal number of chromosomes. (SMD)

angiogenesis: Development of new blood vessels. (SMD)

Antigen:A substance that, when introduced into the body, stimulates the production of protein molecules called antibodies that can specifically bind to the substance.

astrocytes: A type of nerve cell that has supportive and metabolic functions rather than signaling.

Automatic registration:In transplantation, this refers to a transplant where the donor and recipient areas are on the same person. (SMD)

Autosomas:Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, i. h any chromosome that is not an X or a Y. (SMD)

bacteria:One of the numerous single-celled microorganisms that exist as free-living organisms or as parasites and exhibit a wide range of biochemical, often pathogenic, properties.

Blastozyste: (a)Term for an organism in the blastocyst stage of development. (CR) (b) A preimplantation embryo with about 150 to 200 cells. The blastocyst is a sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (the trophectoderm), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and an inner cell mass (the inner cell mass). (NIH)

Estadio Blastozysten:An early stage in the development of embryos when (in mammals) the embryo is a spherical body comprising an inner mass of cells that becomes the fetus, surrounded by an outer ring of cells that becomes part of the placenta . (CR)

bone marrow:The soft, fatty vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.

cardiomioctos: cardiac muscle cells.

cartilage: A type of connective tissue that is strong but tough. It is found in the joints and also as a support structure, for example in the ears.

cell culture: Growth of cells in vitro in an artificial medium for experimental research. (NIH)

Cerebrospinal fluid:Fluid similar to blood serum that washes parts of the brain and inside the spinal cord.

chromosomes:Structures in the cell nucleus consisting of long stretches of DNA coated with specialized cellular proteins that are duplicated with each mitotic cell division. Chromosomes thus transmit the genes of the organism from one generation to the next. (CR)

Clone:A cell line that is genetically identical to the cell of origin; in this case a stem cell. (NIH)

cord blood: Blood in umbilical cord and placenta.

cornea:Transparent fabric in front of the eye.

(Video) The Ethical Questions of Stem Cell Research

cryopreserved embryos: Frozen embryos, generally those produced by in vitro fertilization, that exceed the number that can be transferred for uterine implantation.

culture medium: The broth that covers the cells in a culture dish, containing nutrients to nourish the cells, as well as other growth factors that can be added to drive the desired changes in the cells. (NIH)

dental pulp: The soft part of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves.

diploid:It refers to the total number of chromosomes in a somatic cell, different for each species (forty-six in humans). (CR)

Diploid human cell:A cell with forty-six chromosomes. (CR)

ectoderm: uppermost, outermost layer of a cell group derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; leads to nerves in the skin and to the brain. (NIH)

Edmonton Protocol: Procedure (developed in Canada) to transplant pancreatic islet cells into the liver of a patient with type 1 diabetes.

Embryo: (a) In man, the developing organism from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of gestation, when it is called a fetus. (NIH) (b) The developing organism from the time of fertilization until significant differentiation when the organism is known as a fetus. An organism in the early stages of development. (CR)

embryonic germ cells: Cells located in a specific part of the embryo/fetus called the gonadal crest, which normally develop into mature gametes. (NIH)

Embryonic stem cell: Primitive (undifferentiated) cells of the embryo that have the potential to develop into a variety of specialized cell types. (NIH)

embryonic stem cell line: Embryonic stem cells cultured under in vitro conditions that allow proliferation without differentiation for months to years. (NIH)

endoderm: Lower layer of a cell group derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; this is where the lungs and digestive organs come from. (NIH)

endometrium:The mucous membranes lining the uterus.

endothelium:it refers, for example, to a flat layer of cells that lines the heart or blood vessels. (SMD)

epidermal growth factor: A cellular messenger protein that, among other things, stimulates epidermal development and accelerates eyelid opening and tooth eruption (MDS) in newborn animals

Ex vivo:Outside the body, often the equivalent of "in vitro."

fate (of cell line): The normal result of differentiation of the progeny of a cell.

feed layer: Cells used in coculture to obtain pluripotent stem cells. The cells usually consist of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (NIH)

fertilization: The process by which male and female gametes unite. (NIH)

fetus: A developing human typically two months from conception to birth. (NIH)

fibroblasto: A stellate (stellate) or spindle-shaped cell with cytoplasmic processes in connective tissue capable of forming collagen fibers. (SMD)

Gametes: Areproductive cell (egg or sperm). (CR)

gamma interferon: A kind of small protein with antiviral activity, produced by T lymphocytes.

(Video) What Are Stem Cells | Genetics | Biology | FuseSchool

gastrulation: The process by which cells of the blastocyst translocate to form three cotyledons. It is also sometimes used to mark the end of the blastocyst stage and the beginning of the next stage of embryonic development. (based on SMD)

generation: A functional unit of heredity that is a segment of DNA located at a specific location on a chromosome. A gene controls the production of an enzyme or other protein. (NIH)

Through:The complete genetic complement of a set of chromosomes. (SMD)

Germ cells (or primordial germ cells): A gamete, that is, a sperm or egg, OR a primordial cell that can mature into a sperm or egg. (NRC)

bacterial layers: The initial three layers of tissue that arise in the embryo (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm) from which all other types of somatic tissue develop. (NRC)

Gonad:Organ that produces sex cells (testicles or ovaries). (SMD)

Gonadenkämme: Embryonic structures that arise in humans after about five weeks and eventually develop into gonads (either testicles or ovaries).

green fluorescent protein: A protein found naturally in some animals, including jellyfish, that spontaneously fluoresces. It can be used as a non-invasive marker in living cells by binding to various proteins and then allowing it to fluoresce to track the cell.

Haploid human cell:A cell, such as an egg or sperm cell, that contains only twenty-three chromosomes. (CR)

Hematopoietic stem cell: Stem cell from which all red and white blood cells develop. (NIH)

Hepatocyte:Liver cells.

Histocompatible:The immunological property of a cell or tissue that causes it to be tolerated by another cell or tissue; This allows some tissues to be transferred effectively to others. (NRC)

Hurler Syndrome: An inherited disorder in which an enzyme (alpha-L-iduronidase) is missing, leading to abnormal accumulations of materials within cells and then abnormal development of cartilage, bone, and other systems. (SMD)

ICM cells: Cells of the inner cell mass, a population of cells within the blastula that give rise to the body of the new organism instead of the chorion or other supporting structures.

Immunodeficiency:Unable to mount a normal immune response to, say, a foreign substance.

Immunosuppressive drugs: Drugs that prevent or interfere with the development of an immune reaction. After a transplant, immunosuppressive drugs are usually needed to prevent the recipient from rejecting the transplant.

Implantation:The attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine lining and its subsequent embedding therein. (based on SMD)

In vitro fertilization (IVF):The union of an egg and a sperm where the event takes place outside the body and in an artificial environment (the literal meaning of "in vitro" is "in glass", for example, in a test tube). (CR)

internal cell mass: The group of cells within the blastocyst. From these cells develops the germinal disc of the later embryo and eventually the fetus. (NIH)

Karyotype:The chromosome characteristics (number, shape, etc.) of a single cell or cell line, usually presented in pairs as a systematized matrix. (SMD)

leukemia inhibitory factor: A cellular messenger protein originally known to inhibit M1 murine myeloid leukemia cells that also has effects including inhibition of differentiation to preserve stem cells.

Ancestry:The descendants of a common ancestor.

Long-term self-renewal: The ability of stem cells to self-renew by dividing into the same unspecialized cell type for long periods of time (many months to years) depending on the specific type of stem cell. (NIH)

(Video) What are stem cells? - Craig A. Kohn

lymphocyte:A mobile cell formed in tissues such as lymph nodes that plays a role in the development of immunity.

Mitosis: A special cell division process that involves two nuclear divisions in rapid succession, resulting in four cells (which become gametes) with the haploid number of chromosomes. (based on SMD)

mesenchymal stem cells: Immature embryonic connective tissue cells. Several cell types are derived from mesenchymal stem cells, including chondrocytes, which produce cartilage. (NIH)

mesoderm: middle layer of a cell group originating from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; From this, bones, muscles and connective tissue are formed. (NIH)

metachromatic leukodystrophy: Inherited metabolic disorder, most common in childhood, characterized by loss of myelin and other abnormalities of the white matter of the nervous system, leading to progressive paralysis and intellectual disability or dementia. (SMD)

mitochondria: Small energy-producing organelles in Zellen.

mitochondrial DNA: Genetic material in mitochondria. Essentially, all of an individual's mitochondria originate in the oocyte's cytoplasm, so all mitochondrial DNA is inherited through the maternal line.

Mitochondrial proteins: Proteins that are part of the mitochondria.

Mitosis: Cell division, resulting in two cells, each of which has the diploid number of chromosomes and are exactly the same as the original cell.

Morphology: configuration or structure, form.

mutagenicity: Tendency to promote mutations, that is, genetic changes.

Multipotente:In relation to stem cells, the ability to differentiate into at least two more differentiated progeny cells.

Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs):Cells isolated from the bone marrow that can differentiate into cells with characteristics of cartilage, fat, and bone.

mycoplasma: A general category of microorganisms that share some properties of bacteria.

natural killer cell: A type of cell of the immune system that destroys tumor cells and cells infected by some types of organisms.

olfactory bulb:A part of the brain involved in recognizing and distinguishing different odors.

oligodendrocitos: A type of neuroglia, i. h a specific type of cell that is part of the nervous system and has supportive and metabolic functions rather than signaling. This species forms the myelin sheath around nerve fibers.

ovum: ovum.

Imperfect osteogenesis: A large and diverse group of conditions of abnormal brittleness and plasticity of bone with recurrent fractures from trivial trauma. (SMD)

Pancreas: Organ of the digestive system that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, as well as digestive enzymes.

pancreatic beta cells: Cells of the pancreas (located in pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans) that produce insulin.

Parkinson's disease: A neurological syndrome that generally results from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. . . ; characterized by rhythmic muscle tremors. . . (SMD)

Phenotypic characteristics:The physical, genetic, and environmental characteristics of an organism.

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placenta: The oval or disc-shaped spongy structure in the uterus from which the fetus obtains its nutrition and oxygen. (NRC)

pluripotent:with great developmental plasticity, such aspluripotentstem cell. cells that can produceaCell types of the developing body, such as the ICM cells of the blastocyst, are said to bepluripotent.

Polarity:The quality of having two opposite poles, sides, or extremes (for example, humans have left-right polarity, also front-back polarity, and head-tail polarity).

population doubling:The frequency with which cells grown in vitro have increased the total cell count by a factor of 2 compared to the original cell count. primitive streak: a band of cells that appears in the embryo at the beginning of the third week of development and marks the axis along which the spinal cord develops.

primordial germ cell: A gamete, that is, a sperm or egg, OR a primordial cell that can mature into a sperm or egg. (NRC)

salivary gland: One of several pairs of glands in the mouth that secrete saliva.

skin biopsy: Procedure for removing tissue, in this case skin, from living patients for diagnostic examination or the tissue sample obtained therefrom. (SMD)

"cloned single cell":A procedure related to cells in vitro in which the progeny of a single cell is physically isolated from other cells growing in a dish and then expanded into a larger population.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT): A method of cloning: transfer of the cell nucleus from a donor somatic cell into an enucleated egg to produce a cloned embryo.

Segment: One of the longitudinal rows of segments into which the body of many animals (including vertebrates) is divided. (Merriam-Webster online)

Mother cells: Stem cells are undifferentiated multipotent progenitor cells capable of both proliferation as stem cells and differentiation into one or more specialized cell types. (CR)

estromal: Refers to the stroma of an organ or other structure, i. h to its framework, usually of connective tissue, and not to its specific substance. (SMD)

Syngamy:The meeting of the ovum and the spermatozoon during fertilization.

Thymusdrüse: Organ of the developing immune system that is mainly active in childhood.

T lymphocytes: A type of immune system cell that matures in the thymus and is responsible for cell-mediated immunity.

Type-1A-Diabetes: A form of insulin-dependent diabetes, usually onset in childhood, that results from an autoimmune reaction that destroys beta cells in the pancreas, preventing the body from producing its own insulin. In cases where the disease does not appear until adulthood, it is called latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood. (LADA)

The transcription factor:Specialized proteins that bind to specific sites in DNA, turning the expression of different sets of genes on or off.

trophoblast: The extraembryonic tissue responsible for implantation, development of the placenta, and control of the exchange of oxygen and metabolites between the mother and the embryo. (NIH)

Twins:Identical twin development, that is, when a very early embryo separates into two parts, each of which continues to develop, so that in fact two embryos emerge from one zygote.

Uterus:Regarding the uterus.

Virus:A submicroscopic pathogen consisting essentially of a DNA or RNA core surrounded by a protein coat that can only replicate within a living cell.

Xenotrasplante:A transplant of tissue from an animal of one species to an animal of another species.

Zygote: The diploid cell that results from the fertilization of an egg by a sperm. (CR)

(Video) Embryonic Stem Cells & their Controversy (unbiased view)

Definitions marked “(CR)” are taken from the Council report on human cloning (Human cloning and human dignity: an ethical inquiryWashington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2002). Definitions marked "(NIH)" are from the National Institutes of Health's online stem cell glossary at http://stemcells.nih.gov (accessed September 5, 2003). Definitions marked "(NRC)" are from the National Research Council report,Stem cell research and the future of regenerative medicine(Washington, D.C.: National Research Council, 2001). Definitions marked with "(SMD)" are from Stedman's Medical Dictionary.


1. 23. Stem Cells
(MIT OpenCourseWare)
2. Inside Story - Obama to end stem cell research ban - March 9 - Part1
(Al Jazeera English)
3. How Stem Cells Contribute to Aging and Age-Related Diseases with Rob Signer
(University of California Television (UCTV))
4. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine: Progress and Prospect - Haifan Lin
(Carnegie Science Embryology)
5. Stem Cells & Tissue Regeneration
6. The American Stem Cell Sell


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